Chapter 32



Half A Bottle Of Wine A Day
Caused Breast Cancer In 6 Studies

Howe et al. (1991) reviewed the data from 1,575 cases and 1,974 controls enrolled in 6 previously conducted case-control studies of diet and breast cancer with respect to alcohol intake. The 6 studies provided essentially the same finding; half a bottle of wine or an equivalent amount of alcohol per day was associated with a statistically significant elevated risk of breast cancer.

Wine Causes Breast
Cancer In Dutch Women

Van den Brandt et al. (1995) investigated the association of alcohol consumption and breast cancer in The Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer which involved 62,573 women aged 55-69 years.

After 3 years of follow-up (1986-1989), the alcohol consumption data on 422 breast cancer cases were analyzed. An increased risk of breast cancer was found with higher levels of wine consumption.

Wine Causes Breast
Cancer In Australian Women

Smith (1989) measured per adult consumption of beer, wine, spirits and absolute alcohol for a 14-year period (1971-1984) and its relationship to female breast cancer mortality rates in Western Australia. During the 7 years of highest wine consumption, the highest rates for breast cancer occurred for females aged 30-59 years.

Wine & Distilled Spirits Cause
Breast Cancer In Spanish Women

Martin-Moreno et al. (1993) examined the relation between alcoholic beverage consumption and risk of breast cancer. Using data from a case-control study that included almost all cases occurring in five Spanish regions from 1990 to 1991, a total of 762 women with a diagnosis of breast cancer were compared with 988 control women.

It was found that even a very low alcohol intake (less than 8 grams/day) caused a 50 percent increase in risk of breast cancer. Consumption of 20 grams of alcohol or more per day was associated with a 70 percent elevation in the risk of breast cancer compared to no consumption at all.

An increased incidence of breast cancer was found for wine and distilled drinks, as well as total alcohol intake.

Wine Causes Breast Cancer In Italian
Women Living In Grape-Farming Area

Toniolo et al. (1989) conducted a study of alcohol consumption and breast cancer among 250 cases and 499 controls in a grape-farming area of northern Italy where wine consumption is widespread. In the study population, 30% of the women were abstainers and 15% reported alcohol intakes of 30 g/day or more.

A 2-fold increase in risk of breast cancer was observed with consumption of more than 40 g/day, the equivalent of about half a bottle of wine.

Wine Causes Breast
Cancer In Italian Women

La Vecchia et al. (1985) investigated the relationship between breast cancer and the consumption of alcoholic beverages in a case-control study of 437 women with breast cancer and 437 age-matched controls.

An increased incidence of breast cancer was found among those women reporting 1-3 or more alcoholic drinks per day. A positive trend in risk was evident for increasing daily consumption of wine alone, as well as for beer and spirits.

Allowance for all identified potential confounding factors, including the major risk factors for breast cancer and a few selected dietary items, did not appreciably change any of the alcohol-related estimates.

In addition, there was an increased risk of breast cancer associated in women who started drinking at a younger age.


Ochratoxin Found In Red Wine And Dessert Wine:
Correlation With Ochratoxin In Human Blood

Zimmerli and Dick (1996) analyzed various table wines from the Swiss retail markets for ochratoxin. Ochratoxin was found in a number of red wine and dessert red wines. Ochratoxin was also found in various grape juices. This fact suggests that the toxin in the wines was likely present prior to the making of the wines.

The researchers also observed that men living south of the Alps had significantly higher levels of ochratoxin in the blood than those living north of the Alps and that this appeared to be due to the consumption of red wines of southern origin, particularly southern Italian and southern Spanish wines.

18 Species Of Living Fungi
Found In Spanish Wines

Hidalgo and Flores (1991) analyzed the yeast flora in several wines from the Madrid area of Spain. From these 270 samples, they were able to isolate yeast strains belonging to eighteen different species. This finding is important because it demonstrates how severely fungal-contaminated food products can be. It is precisely this contamination which sets the stage for mycotoxin production to occur in wine and other fruits.

Fungi Found In Spanish Ribeiro Wine

Cansado et al. (1989) carried out an analysis of spontaneously fermented Ribeiro wine and was able to isolate 15 species of fungus and, in some cases, several different strains within a given species. The researchers noted that several of the isolated fungi produce mycotoxins known to cause cancer in man.

Viable Fungi And Their Mycotoxins
Found In High Quality Aged Wine

Schwenk et al. (1989) reported on the presence of the fungus Trichothecium roseum in several wines of high quality. They note that this fungus is capable of producing at least 3 mycotoxins, trichothecin, trichothecolone and rosenonolactone.

Furthermore, trichothecin (which is cytotoxic) was detected in some samples of longer-aged wines, suggesting that consumption of aged wines of higher quality may pose a greater risk of causing health problems than other younger wines. Also cytotoxic in wine is the alcohol itself, a fungal metabolite.

Filters Used In Wine-Making Are Ineffective
Against Fungal Growth In Wine

In an assessment of the filtration processes used in the manufacture of wines, Thomas (1988) found that the growth of wine-spoiling yeasts and lactic acid bacteria were typically not inhibited by the filter. This result calls for the need for stricter microbial standards in the wine industry.

Aflatoxin-Producing Fungi
Found In Wines in Thailand

Sripathomswat and Thasnakorn (1981) were able to isolate aflatoxin-producing fungi directly out of samples of Thai red, white, and rice sugar wine.

Aspergillus Found On
California Wine Grapes

Nelson and Ough (1966) showed in a test carried out in California that Aspergillus flavus can cultivate on wine grapes. This fungus is a producer of aflatoxin, a known human carcinogen.

Aflatoxin Found In Rice Wine In China

Ren (1984) reported the finding of aflatoxin in home-made yellow rice wine in China. Yellow rice is known to be heavily contaminated with fungi/mycotoxins and has been shown to be responsible for large numbers of deaths from cardiovascular disease.

Aflatoxin Found In Grape
Wines In Poland

Lemieszek-Chodorowska et al. (1971) reported the finding of aflatoxin in grape wines in Poland.

Wine Cellar As A Cause of
Acute Myocardial Infarction

Richter (1989) reported of a 50-year-old woman who was able to escape from the cellar in fermenting wine was being stored. Her husband, however, died in the cellar. Immediately after the incident she developed an extensive myocardial infarction of the anterior and septal wall in spite of an intravenous administration of streptokinase within 2 hours. Four weeks later coronary angiography showed normal vessels.

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