FUNGI/MYCOTOXINS
ARE THE CAUSE OF
PROSTATE CANCER
  Chapter 29
CYCLOSPORIN CAUSES PROSTATE CANCER
 

CYCLOSPORIN IS A MYCOTOXIN

CYCLOSPORIN CAUSES PROSTATE CANCER

CYCLOSPORIN ENHANCES METASTASIS
OF PROSTATE CANCER CELLS
 

THE REPORTED CLINICAL FACTS

Cyclosporin Is A Mycotoxin

Betina (1989) points out that cyclosporin is actually a mycotoxin, a fungal-derived secondary metabolite which is toxic to the immune system.
 

Cyclosporin Causes Prostate
Cancer In Liver Transplantation Patients

Frezza et al. (1997) noted that the increasing length of survival of organ transplant recipients necessitates careful attention to the potential neoplastic complications of life-long immunosuppression which is required for such patients. Previous studies of patients taking triple drug therapy (cyclosporin, azathioprine and prednisone) for immunosuppression have shown a high percentage of tumor development
(3,117 per 2,915 patients).

3,394 adult patients underwent orthotopic liver transplantation at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Transplant Institute prior to December 1992.

A total of 50 patients with tumors were identified (37 males, 13 females), ranging between 34 and 69 years of age. The types of cancers caused by cyclosporin included prostate cancer.
 

Cyclosporin Causes Prostate
Cancer In Renal Transplant Patients

Voght (1990) analyzed a population of renal transplant recipients treated with cyclosporin and prednisolone with respect to clinically evident de novo malignancies.

Eighteen of 598 patients (mean age 35.6 (1-73) years receiving their first renal graft between May, 1981 and December, 1986 developed a malignancy at a mean interval of 33.5 months.

The types of cancers caused by cyclosporin included carcinoma of the prostate.
 

THE REPORTED ANIMAL STUDIES

The Mycotoxin Cyclosporin Enhances
Metastasis Of Prostate Cancer Cells In Rats

Pollard (1997) reported that the rate and extent of metastasis by prostate adenocarcinoma cells was enhanced in rats by the administration of cyclosporin A. The cancer cells spread through the lymph nodes to the lungs in which they developed secondary tumors.
 

  Chapter 30
AFLATOXIN AS A MYCOTOXIN CAUSE OF PROSTATE CANCER
 

AFLATOXIN-CONTAMINATED
FOODS CAUSE PROSTATE CANCER
 
AFLATOXIN CAUSES P53 MUTATION
AS FOUND IN PROSTATE CANCER
 

THE REPORTED CLINICAL FACTS

Aflatoxin-Contaminated
Foods Cause Prostate Cancer

The various foods which are documented to cause prostate cancer share little in common except that they are all high on the list of fungal/mycotoxin-contaminated foods. The carcinogenic mycotoxin most often encountered is aflatoxin. The possibility that this is a matter of coincidence is unlikely, particularly when it has been documented that aflatoxin causes mutation of normal rat prostate cells (Link et al. [1983]). One must read this chapter in the light of the fact that the cause of prostate cancer has been previously deemed to be unknown.

To learn about the foods most frequently found to be contaminated with aflatoxin which are associated with an increased risk of men developing prostate cancer, see the pertinent food chapters in Part VI.
 

 The p53 Gene Mutation Is Caused By Aflatoxin

In his 1995 Deichmann Lecture presentation, Harris provides an update of the genetic aspects of cancer. Cancer is a multistage process involving the activation of proto-oncogenes, for example ras, and the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, such as p53 and p16INK4.

Harris points out that p53 is a prototype tumor suppressor gene that is the most common genetic lesion in human cancers including prostate cancer.

In 1991, Harris stated that the p53 mutation is found in hepatocellular carcinomas from both Qidong, People's Republic of China and southern Africa. Harris continues:

"This observation links exposure to aflatoxin, a known cancer risk factor in these geographic regions, with a specific mutation in a cancer-related gene."

Simply stated, the mutation found in the p53 gene is due to a mycotoxin. (See also Lilleberg [1992].)
 

THE REPORTED ANIMAL STUDIES

Aflatoxin Mycotoxin Causes Mutations (Pre-
Cancerous Change) In Normal Rat Prostate Cells

Link et al. (1983) reported that aflatoxin increased the frequency of mutants in normal rat prostate cells.

It was concluded that their procedures now make it possible to detect some environmental carcinogens likely to cause prostate cancer by virtue of their ability to mutate cultured rat prostate epithelial cells.

The sensitivity of the rat prostate cells cell line to aflatoxin-induced cytotoxicity and mutagenesis also makes it a useful cell system in which to study enzymes governing the conversion of aflatoxin to gene-toxic metabolites. See also Soderkvist et al. (1983).

   Chapter 29
ZERALENONE CAUSES PROSTATE CANCER
 

ZEARALENONE IS A MYCOTOXIN

ZEARALENONE DERIVATIVE ZERANOL
CAUSES PRECANCEROUS METAPLASIA

ZERANOL IS USED AS A FATTENING
AGENT IN LIVESTOCK ANIMALS
 

Zeranol is a derivative of the Fusarium mycotoxin zearalenone which is used to artificially fatten domestic animals for human consumption. Such meat contains measurable amounts of this growth promoter and this has raised serious questions relative to endangering the health of meat consumers.

This is particularly worrisome since meat causes prostate cancer in humans (see Chapter 48.).
 

THE REPORTED ANIMAL STUDIES
 
Zeranol (Mycotoxin Zearalenone Derivative) Causes
Pre-Cancerous Metaplasia Of Prostate Cells In Bulls

Deschamps et al. (1987) studied the effects of zeranol on scrotal circumference, serving ability, semen characteristics, and postmortem measurements of the genital organs in beef bulls from 9 to 20 months of age.

Histologic examination of the genital organs revealed that zeranol induced adenomyosis and sperm granulomas in the Caudae epididymidis and markedly altered the structure of the sexual accessory glands of bulls.
 Low epithelium associated with focal areas of squamous metaplasia were found to be induced in the prostate of the zeranol-dosed bulls. Metaplasia is generally considered to represent a precancerous change in afflicted tissue cells.

Zeranol Stimulates Growth
Of Prostate Gland In Lambs

Wiggins et al. (1980) found that zeranol stimulates the growth of the seminal vesicles, the prostate gland and the preputial glands in lambs. See also Marois and Marois (1979).
 

Zeranol Causes Hyperplasia And Cellular
Transformations In Prostate Glands Of Sheep

Rothenbacher et al. (1975) reported that zeranol administered to sheep caused hyperplasia (increased growth of number of cells) as well as transitional cell and squamous cell transformation in their prostate glands.
 
 
 

Return Home
 
BOOK ORDER FORM