Chapter 28
BREAST CANCER:
HOPE AT LAST 
CLINICAL PERSPECTIVE

The Cause Of Breast Cancer Has Been Unknown

It is clearly stated in medical textbooks that the cause of breast cancer is unknown.

There are risk factors which are found in the history of some, but not all, patients who develop breast cancer. The problem of understanding the true role of these risk factors is complicated by the fact that they are not consistently found in all breast cancer studies. Furthermore, there is no explanation as to precisely how these risk factors are involved in the entire cancer process. Clearly, something is missing.

THE REPORTED CLINICAL FACTS

Hopeless Nature Of Most
Breast Cancer Risk Factors

Colditz (1993) reviewed the epidemiology of breast cancer "in the context of hormonal, hereditary, histologic, and dietary risk factors." The article provides a review of the pertinent breast cancer literature.

The conclusion of the review article is quoted here, for it provides the reader with a clear view of the helpless position in which the medical profession finds itself when dealing with breast cancer:

"Few of these associations offer the potential
for intervention to reduce the breast cancer risk."
 

CLINICAL PERSPECTIVE

Breast Cancer Is Entirely Preventable
Based Upon The Published Data In This Book

The published research data in this book is intended to replace this state of helplessness with a new level of understanding. This book provides the answers to the unanswered questions raised with respect to the issue of breast cancer. It provides the etiology, as well as the preventive measures based upon it which must be taken to prevent breast cancer.

The fact is that cancer can only be conquered when the true cause has been determined and then eradicated.

 
Fungi/Mycotoxins Are
The Cause Of Breast Cancer

The concept of the fungal/mycotoxin cause of breast cancer provides us with the missing piece of the puzzle. Each risk factor is fully explained by a fungal/mycotoxin etiology.

There is no other documented cause of breast cancer. The medical literature is crystal clear: breast cancer is a disease which is not caused by genes, viruses, insecticides, stress or lack of exercise.
 

Antifungal/Antimycotoxin Nature Of
Effective Anti-Breast Cancer Measures

It should be noted that each and every effective (non-surgical) preventive measure and therapeutic agent employed against breast cancer share an antifungal and/or an antimycotoxin mode of action. This includes all chemotherapy drugs and radiation therapy. The anti-breast cancer drug tamoxifen, for example, is antifungal as well.
 

Role Of Fungi/Mycotoxins In Human Food
And Health Ignored By Medical Researchers

Fungi and their toxins (mycotoxins) as a cause of degenerative and cancerous diseases in both animals and humans is a subject which has essentially been ignored by physicians and medical researchers.

 The reason for the existence of this blind spot is that the tens of thousands of published articles on fungi and mycotoxins appear in the food science and microbiology literature and only seldom (if ever) in medical journals. Physicians simply have not been exposed to the information on mycotoxins nor to the globally-recognized and serious nature of the carcinogenicity and pathogenicity of these toxins.

Many studies present inconsistencies with respect to risk factors for breast cancer. One example is meat: some studies have shown it as being a risk factor, while others have found no association. These inconsistencies of the various risk factors related to breast cancer are easily explained by the fact that mycotoxins are not always present to the same degree, from time to time, place to place, in any particular food.

Storage of foods and the fermentation processes used to make foods such as bread, cheese, beer, wine and other alcoholic beverages, may be contaminated by variable amounts of fungi and their toxins.

Fresh foods, particularly fresh fish, fresh fruits and vegetables, are relatively free of fungi and mycotoxins because of the protective antifungal metabolites they still contain. Wherever fruits or vegetables are implicated as being a risk factor, further investigation indicates that the quality of the food was compromised by fungal contamination.
 

Women Can Prevent Breast Cancer

Knowledge of the fungal/mycotoxin etiology of breast cancer allows women to now make the appropriate dietary choices which will prevent the loss of their breast(s) and the premature loss of their lives.
 If the cancer has already taken hold, these same choices will help to improve the management and outlook of the disease, while simultaneously decreasing the chance that new breast cancers may take hold.

It should be clear both to the patient with breast cancer and every health professional involved in that patientís care, that the causative fungal/mycotoxin type foods must be entirely removed from the diet to prevent a recurrence.

The concept that breast cancer is inherited is based upon a number of reports documenting that patients with this cancer often have a family history of the disease. There is also some genetic research which has become popular in the public media in the past decade.

However, it should be stressed, that most patients do not have a family history of breast cancer nor do they show evidence of a genetic cause for their cancer.

The following sections provide a fungal/mycotoxin explanation for what appears to just be "family history".

THE REPORTED CLINICAL FACTS

Increased Incidence Of Breast Cancer
In First-Degree Relatives In Japan

Hirose et al. (1995) conducted a large-scale case-control study to evaluate the differences and similarities in the risk factors of female breast cancer. The study involved 1,186 women with breast cancer.

The incidence of at least one breast cancer case among the subjects' first-degree relatives was relatively high.

Increased Incidence Of Breast Cancer
In First-Degree Relatives In American Women

Madigan et al. (1995) evaluated the data from the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey which was a probability sample of the U.S. population. 7,508 female participants were surveyed in the early 1970's, and followed up between 1982 and 1984 and again in 1987. 193 breast cancer cases were accrued for study.

It was found that women with a family history of breast cancer had an increased incidence of breast cancer.

Increased Incidence Of Breast Cancer In
First-Degree Relatives In Hispanic Families

Mayberry and Branch (1994) reported on a study of risk factors for breast cancer among Hispanic women in a case-control study of 148 subjects.

Women who had a mother or sister with breast cancer were nearly twice as likely to have had breast cancer compared to women with no such family history.
 

CLINICAL PERSPECTIVE

The increased incidence of breast cancer in first degree relatives of breast cancer patients led to a search for cancer-related genes. This search was rewarded by the finding of gene abnormalities in cancer cells. It is important to stress, however, that these gene findings did not involve normal genes, but rather damaged/mutated ones.

Normal genes cannot cause cancer any more than an elephant's genes can make it fly.

 So what the genetic researchers found, then, is that a normal gene was mutated in some breast cancer patients. The finding of a gene mutation must always raise the question of how that gene became mutated in the first place. It also raises the question of whether or not this mutated gene in the familial gene pool is being transferred from the mothers to their daughters. This is unlikely, though, because only a small percentage of related breast cancer patients share identical mutated gene patterns.

It also doesn't fit the clinical reality that environmental factors, particularly stored and fermented foods in the diet, cause breast cancer.

Finally, the virtual absence of breast cancer in several Oriental countries prior to World War II being replaced by a breast cancer epidemic traced to the Western diet is not an inherited genetic phenomenon.

This leaves us with the alternative possibility which is that there is an environmental gene-mutating toxin present in the nourishment which the mother transfers through the placenta to the fetus, in the mother's breast milk during lactation, and, lastly, in the food which the infant will consume during its childhood and later on as an adult.
 

The P53 Gene Mutation
Found In Breast Cancer

Abnormalities in the p53 gene are reported in more than 50% of malignant tumors (Livni et al. [1995]). The cancers involved include those of the lung, breast and colon.

When the increased incidence of breast cancer in family members is viewed in light of an abnormal gene found in some patients, one can readily see how the p53 mutated gene mistakenly leads to the genetic theory of breast cancer.
 
THE CORRELATIVE FUNGAL / MYCOTOXIN FACTS

The P53 Gene Mutation Due To Aflatoxin

In his 1995 Deichmann Lecture presentation, Harris provides an update of the genetic aspects of cancer. Cancer is a multistage process involving the activation of proto-oncogenes, for example ras, and the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, such as p53 and p16INK4.

Harris points out that p53 is a prototype tumor suppressor gene that is the most common genetic lesion in human cancers including breast cancer.

In 1991, Harris stated that the p53 mutation is found in hepatocellular carcinomas from both Qidong, People's Republic of China, and southern Africa. Harris continues:

"This observation links exposure to aflatoxin, a known cancer risk factor in these geographic regions, with a specific mutation in a cancer-related gene."

Simply stated, the mutation found in the p53 gene is due to a mycotoxin. (See also Lilleberg [1992].)
 

Aflatoxin Found In
Human Breast Cancer Tissue

Harrison et al. (1993) examined human breast cancer tissue for evidence of the presence of aflatoxin, a recognized potent carcinogenic mycotoxin.

 The researchers examined human DNA from a variety of tissues and organs to identify and quantify aflatoxin DNA-adducts. Such adducts are considered to be proof of the mycotoxin's presence in a particular tissue. (These researchers had already proved the value of this method in the detection of aflatoxin-DNA adducts in tissue from a case of acute aflatoxin poisoning in Southeast Asia.)

DNA from normal and tumorous tissue obtained from patients with cancer of the breast was examined. Tumor tissues had higher aflatoxin-adduct levels than did normal tissue from the same individual.

The result of this study is that it verifies the presence of carcinogenic aflatoxin within the cancer tissue and thus implicates aflatoxin as a cause of breast cancer.
 

Aflatoxin-Induced Liver
Cancers In Rats Show P53 Expression

Lilleberg et al. (1992) examined rat hepatocellular carcinomas which had been induced by aflatoxin treatment. The tissues were examined for their changes in the p53 tumor suppressor gene. All of the 11 aflatoxin-dosed animals exhibited mutation of the p53 gene.

When compared with non-tumor liver tissue from the same animal, the tumors with p53 gene alterations showed dramatically reduced levels of p53 mRNA and protein.

It was concluded that, according to the data, alterations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene are involved in the induction of rat liver cancer by aflatoxin.
 

CLINICAL PERSPECTIVE

The cancer research relative to abnormal genes is quite exciting when it correlates with mycotoxins such as aflatoxin. The erroneous impression of the general public that there is a hereditary genetic cause of cancer must by all means be corrected, for it leads to the fatalistic perception that, if cancer is "inherited", nothing can be done to prevent it.
 

Cancers Caused By Pre-Natal
And Post-Natal Aflatoxin-Exposed Rats

Goettler et al. (1980) reported what appears to be one of the most significant aflatoxin exposure studies ever reported. Pregnant rats were intraperitoneally dosed with aflatoxin for a 3-day period of time and the offspring were dosed for 3 days following delivery. The doubly-exposed offspring developed the following array of benign and malignant tumors:

Benign Tumors
Hepatocellular Adenomas
Cholangiocellular Adenomas
Papillomas of the Stomach
Papillomas of the Intestine
Adenomas of the Stomach
Adenomas of the Intestine
And Of These Other Organs:
Pituitary
Adrenal
Ovaries
Testes
Thyroid
Parathyroid
Pancreas
Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nerves
Skin
Urogenital
Skeletal
Nasal Cavity
 Malignant Tumors
Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Stomach Adenocarcinoma
Intestine Adenocarcinoma
Leukemia
And Of These Other Organs:
Adrenal
Thyroid
Pituitary
Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nerves
Skin
Uterus
Vagina
Skeletal
Nasal Cavity

 This study mimics the real life situation of a pregnant woman and her baby being exposed to dietary aflatoxin at various stages:

1. During the pregnancy through the placenta via the umbilical cord;
2. Through breast-feeding of aflatoxin-contaminated milk by the mother; and then,
3. By feeding the infant aflatoxin-contaminated commercial infant formula;
4. By feeding the growing child aflatoxin-contaminated food.

The following published human and animal studies document that these 4 aflatoxin exposures do, in reality, occur.
 

Mycotoxins Found In Umbilical Cord
Blood Of Pregnant Women In Sierra Leone

Johnson et al. (1995) analyzed 64 umbilical cord blood samples from pregnant women in Sierra Leone. The analyses revealed the presence of ochratoxin and aflatoxin in 25% and 58% of the samples, respectively. Of eight maternal blood samples collected during delivery, one contained ochratoxin and six contained aflatoxins.
 

Aflatoxin And Other Mycotoxins
Found In Human Breast Milk (Sierra Leone)

Jonsyn et al. (1995) tested breast milk in Sierra Leone for the presence of mycotoxins. Only 10 of 113 breast milk samples were mycotoxin-free. Eighty-eight percent of samples contained various aflatoxins and 35% contained ochratoxin. Very few samples (15%) had only a single mycotoxin. Thirty-six samples (32%) had two mycotoxins; 50 samples (40%) had three or more.

It was concluded that infants in Sierra Leone are exposed to aflatoxins and other mycotoxins at levels which, in some cases, far exceed those levels permissible in animal feed in developed countries.

This is not a problem unique to African nations, as has been all too often claimed by the developed nations. The following report documents that the problem also exists in Europe. This suggests that if the human breast milk in other countries were to be checked, similar findings would be found.
 

Ochratoxin Found In Human Breast
Milk From Nursing Italian Mothers

Micco et al. (1991) studied the possibility that ochratoxin could be transmitted in human milk from mother to child during breast-feeding.

Fifty samples of human milk were collected randomly over one year from Italian nursing mothers and analyzed for ochratoxin. Nine samples (18%) were found to contain ochratoxin.
 

 Aflatoxin In Breast Milk Causes
Liver Cancer In Young Rats

Several published studies on breast-fed rats have shown cases of liver cancer in offspring as a result of the ingestion of aflatoxin from the breast milk (Grice et al. [1973]; Wakhisi [1989]).
 

Human Infant Exposure To Aflatoxin
Causes Liver Cancer In Young Adults

Van Rensburg et al. (1985) found a high incidence of primary liver cancer in young males and females (20-30 years old) in Inhambane Province, Mozambique. It had been postulated that one factor contributing to this early onset of the disease could be exposure to environmental carcinogens at or soon after birth (Wild et al. [1987]).

The presence of various mycotoxins, especially a highly toxic one like aflatoxin, in human breast milk provides proof of very early exposure of humans to mycotoxin carcinogens.
 

Aflatoxin In Infant Powdered Milk

Jesenska and Polakova (1978) studied the problems of the presence of potential mycotoxin producing fungi in powdered milk preparations marketed for infants. The study was prompted by the finding of aflatoxin in the livers of deceased children and in some samples of milk powder.

Commercial samples of domestic and foreign milk powder intended for babies were examined and, as expected, 29 different species of molds were isolated. The authors concluded that these results must lead to a revision of views on the microbiological standards and the production and packaging technologies for baby foods.
 Aflatoxicosis Traced To Aflatoxin-
Contaminated Infant Milk Food

Dvorackova et al. (1977) in their studies of encephalopathy with fatty degeneration of viscera (Reye's syndrome) found that the disease appeared to be associated with aflatoxin-contaminated milk food, a finding supported by a number of other researchers.
 

CLINICAL PERSPECTIVE

Breast Cancer Is Indeed Preventable

It is unfortunate that the strong correlation between family history and breast cancer has been interpreted in terms of a genetic etiologic concept.

The concept requires that a mother's genes be passed on to the daughter who is then, by the nature of her genes, pre-determined to develop breast cancer. If this were true, then it would be one of the most hopeless situations women face in their attempts to prevent breast cancer.

Fortunately, though, the genetic concept is fatally flawed. The clinical facts speak clearly. Much of the Oriental populations, constituting half of the world's population, were virtually free of breast cancer prior to end of World War II in 1945. This marked the beginning of the entry of Western foods into the Orient.

An increasing number of studies now points to Western stored and fermented foods as being the cause of a rapidly increasing epidemic of breast cancer in Asia. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence which points to a lower incidence of breast cancer in women who consume a traditional, more-fresh-food diet versus one of stored/fermented foods.

 If this book shall serve no other purpose than to disprove the flawed concepts about a genetic etiology of breast cancer, which make women believe that it is inevitable that they will die of the same disease as their mother, then it will have well served its purpose.

A woman must learn to use her own instinctive and "protective" mind power to decide whether or not she sees in this book a sufficient data-based explanation of the dietary toxin cause of breast cancer. If so, she can then adopt the appropriate dietary and behavioral measures which will prevent cancer from destroying her breasts and her life. Furthermore, she will then be in a position to protect the lives of her female offspring by instilling into them the dietary habits which are protective against breast cancer.

For further information relative to the several dozen other cancer-related gene mutations being researched, the reader is referred to Dr. Robert A. Weinberg's recent article in the September, 1996 issue of Scientific American.
 
 

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